The active substances in drugs are responsible for their action and have a key role to play in achieving satisfactory treatment outcomes. A medicine is defined as a medicinal product, which may be a substance of natural or synthetic origin, intended to be introduced into the body only in a pharmaceutical form. It can achieve the intended therapeutic effects and prevent the development of the disease. Medicines are administered in appropriate doses.
The drug is a substance that influences physiological processes by inhibiting the cause as well as symptoms of the disease. While explaining what the drug is, it should be noted that the term also refers to the substances used for diagnostics, i.e. metoclopramide used in the diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia. The drug contains the active substance that is responsible for its effects.
What do drugs consist of and what is the active substance?
The drug composition is based on two substances: active and auxiliary. Both of these substances are responsible for the effect of the medicine taken. Many people do not know what an active substance is and how it works. Thanks to it, pharmacological, immunological and metabolic effects are induced. The active substances in medicines help to restore and improve physiological functions. When explaining what the active substance causes, it should be noted that it is repeatedly indispensable in the process of diagnosing many diseases. Usually, the active ingredient in the drug is in small quantities in relation to the whole composition. Not every medicine that contains the same active substance has the same effect and may be a substitute for it. This is due to the fact that not only the active substance, but also its quantity, total composition of the drug, its form (syrup, tablet, etc.) and auxiliary substances influence the effect of the preparation.
In most cases, drugs have one active substance in their composition. Such preparations are referred to as single-component or traditional drugs. Single-component medicines can be used in a number of conditions where the same symptoms are present. Pharmacies also offer preparations with several active substances. In this case, the preparation is referred to as a compound medicine.
The active substance in medicines is divided into specific groups, subject to strict procedures for documentation of test results, their production and storage. Active substances must be thoroughly tested and have records of toxicological, laboratory and clinical studies.
Origin of biological active substances
Biological active substances may have different sources of origin. This group includes radiopharmaceutical products which are used for diagnostic purposes, chemical, mineral and also products which have animal, viral, bacterial, fungal, mineral and plant origin. Depending on the origin of the active substance, strict standards are set for its manufacture, storage and monitoring. The active substances used in the production of medicines are subject to strict controls by many institutions such as the Pharmaceutical Inspectorate.